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Thursday, December 15, 2011

The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs

The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs (الخلفاء الراشدون al-Khulafā’u r-Rāshidūn) is a term used to refer to the first four Caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate. It is a reference to the Haidth (tradition); "Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs" (Ibn MajahAbu Dawood). The Rashidun were either elected by a council (Islamic democracy) or chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the rashidun were:
Imam Hasan ibn Ali was appointed as Caliph in 661 following the death of Ali bin Talib and is also regarded as a righteous ruler although he was recognized by only half of the Islamic state and his rule was challenged and eventually ended by the Governor of Syria, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. In addition to this, there are several views regarding additional rashidunUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (Umar ІІ), who was one of the Ummayyad caliphs, is sometimes regarded as one of the Rashidun and is quoted by Taftazani.
 They were all close companions of  Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and his relatives: the daughters of Abu Bakr and Umar were married to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh),, and two of Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh), daughters were married to Uthman and Ali. Likewise, their succession was not hereditary, something that would become the custom after them, beginning with the subsequent Umayyad Caliphate. Council decision or caliph's choice determines the successor originally. Shi'a support their claim of hereditary caliphate of Ali  with the  twisted interpretation of  Hadith of the pond of Khum. The Caliphs enjoyed good relations and related with intermarriages. Ali not took the oath of allegiance to all caliphs. Ali also married his daughter Umm Kulthum to Umar, and quite contrary to the biased allegations, perfect cordiality prevailed between Ali and Umar. Ali held the office of the Chief Justice. He acted as the principal Counselor of Umar. He acted as Chief Secretary as well. The services of Ali were highly appreciated by Umar. In these circumstances the views expressed in some quarters that Umar was the worst enemy of Ali is far from truth and cannot be accepted.


For further study click following:
  1. Abu Bakr 
  2. Umar ibn al-Khattab
  3. Uthman ibn Affan 
  4. Ali ibn Abi Talib 
Also see: Status of Sahabah: Companions of Prophet