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Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Why do some Catholics Christians self-flagellate? خونی ماتم کے حوالے سے امام خامنہ ای کا فتوی

The late Pope John Paul II would whip himself, according to a nun who helped to look after him. So how common is this practice in the Catholic faith?
"We would hear the sound of the blows," says Sister Tobiana Sobodka, who was in the next room to Pope John Paul II at his summer residence in Castel Gandolfo, near Rome.

Christ was scourged before the Crucifixion, Christians believe
Her evidence was given to the Vatican body which is considering whether to declare the Pope - who died five years ago - a saint.
Flagellation is the beating or whipping of the skin, most often on the back, and often drawing blood, as a bodily penance to show remorse for sin.
It was a widespread practice in some parts of the Catholic ministry up to the 1960s but is uncommon today, says Professor Michael Walsh, a Catholic historian.
Flagellation is acted out for symbolic purposes during penitential processions during Lent's Holy Week in Mediterranean countries, he says, as a reminder that Jesus Christ was whipped before the Crucifixion.
But in some countries like the Philippines, this re-enactment of the suffering of Jesus Christ - called the Passion play - can take a more extreme form and can draw blood.

Self-flagellation is only practised by a very small minority of Catholics
It is an expression of remorse for sins
It is also part of the Passion play in Holy Week
For others self-flagellation is a more private expression of faith.

It is thought to have come to prominence in Western Europe in medieval times around 600 to 800 AD as an extreme version of bodily penance, says Professor Lewis Ayres, a Catholic theologian at Durham University.
Early Christians believed that the notion of bodily penance allowed control of the body and emotions in order to focus more fully on worshipping God.
The practice continued in what Mr Ayres calls "the more conservative Catholic orders" well into the 20th Century and is still probably practised by a "tiny minority" today.

Pope John Paul II could be made a saint in 2010
Opus Dei, a branch of the Catholic Church which has a reputation for secrecy and featured in the Dan Brown bestseller The Da Vinci Code, is one of those groups unusual in doing this today, according to Mr Walsh.
Andrew Soane of Opus Dei says that what it calls "corporal mortification" goes back to the early Christians but it fell out of favour in the 1950s.
"It may happen that this change is reversed as people reconnect with their bodies and take control via moderate fasting and some corporal mortification, finding it a very healthy practice, which can overcome such unhealthy developments as drug use, sexual addictions, eating disorders and other body-hating approaches."
The Opus Dei website says some members self-flagellate for about one or two minutes a week, using a woven cotton string that causes some discomfort but does not draw blood.
Tradition of suffering
The revelation that Pope John Paul II, who died in 2005, possibly engaged in flagellation does not necessarily surprise Catholic scholars.
"Pope John Paul II was a firm believer in the New Testament tradition of suffering, a consistent theological historical position that a good life is simply preparation for death and life everlasting to follow," according to Mr Ayres.
"Part of a good life is remorse and remorse can be shown through physical suffering."

Mr Walsh says Pope John Paul II grew up in an era where bodily punishment was seen as pious, and the possibility he may have engaged in it will aid the campaign for his beatification.
The Vatican body which decides these matters, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, would regard this as a sign of his religious commitment, says Mr Walsh.
Whether the practice is more widespread in Asia today than Europe is harder for scholars to agree a position on.
Mr Ayres thinks it may be simply that "different forms of Catholic expression and piety take on different forms across the world".
"Certain cultures preserve older customs in a cultural context - and flagellation is no longer part of the cultural context of the vast majority of Catholics in the West," he says.
As to why flagellation seems to have disappeared, Mr Walsh is in no doubt.
"Early Christians thought the body was evil and needed to be controlled. Quite simply, we now have a greater understanding that such practices are not healthy."

Mexico: Self-flagellation during Good Friday procession 
Problem with youtube, click link: http://goo.gl/Yfi9n
Shia Self Flagellation

Prophet Muhammad [peace be upon him] said: 
  • "He is not one of us, he who imitates others. Do not imitate either the Jews or the Christians." [Reported by ImamsTermithy & Abu-Dawd]
  • "If one imitates another nation he will be from them." [Reported by Imam Abu-Dawd]
  • http://islam1.org/khutub/Imitation_of_None-Muslims.htm
Imam Khomeini issued a verdict about the forbiddance of blood matam and Karbala plays [Taziah] making their permissibility conditional on them not harming Islam. After this Ayatollah Shahid Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Sadr and Ayatollah Shahid Murtaza Mutahari, as well as a group of scholars with foresight, supported this ruling and condemned blood matam. Shahid Ayatollah Mutahari mentioned this discussion in his book Howza va Ruhaniat: `Blood matam in its present form has not rational or religious backing. It is a clear instance of deviation. At least, in the present day it causes Shiaism to be questioned. Programs that do not have any relation to the goals of Imam Husayn (as) are razors, blades, and locks. Striking the head with a blade is the same. This is a mistake. Some people take blades and strike their heads making blood flow – for what? This action is not mourning.
Shahid Sayyid Abdul-Karim Hashimi-Nejad wrote about the bad effects of blood matam on the Shia faith: Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi said: `It is necessary for our dear mourners to refrain from committing actions which would cause the religion to look bad or cause an injury to their body.` [www.makaremshirazi.org] as a strong weapon by the enemies from within and without the country.`Shahid Ayatollah Murtada Mutahari: `Blood matam in its present form does not have a rational or religious proof. It is a clear instance of deviation. At least, in the present day it causes Shiaism to be questioned. Programs that do not have any relation to the goals of Imam Husayn (as) are razors, blades, and locks. Striking the head with a blade is the same. This is a mistake. Some people take blades and strike their heads making blood flow – for what? This action is not mourning.` Howzah va Ruhaniyat, v.2, p.173 
Source: http://www.ic-el.com/en/show_news.asp?idnum=38&state=article

Also read: Mourning Matam: Self-Flagellation
خونی ماتم کے حوالے سے امام خامنہ ای کے فتوی پر عمل کرنے پر علماء کی تلقین
ابنا فارسی نے پیش لفظ یوں(یہ اسکا ترجمہ ہے) لکھا تھا: 
عزاداری اور ماتم کے مراسم میں قمہ زنی کرنا ، تالوں اور زنجیروں سے جکڑنا، سر اور سینے کو خون آلود کرنا ، زیارت میں سینہ خیز چلنا اور اس قسم کے طریقوں پر مبنی عزاداری کرنا بے شک اسلام اور بالخصوص اپنے مذہب کی اہانت کا سبب بن جاتے ہیں خاص کر موجودہ دور میں جس میں مسلمانوں کے کردار اور رفتار کا باریک بینی کے ساتھ تحقیق کیا جاتا ہے اور اس پر اسلام کے بارے میں قضاوت کی جاتی ہے ۔ اسلئے مقام معظم رھبری دامت برکاتہ نے امت اسلامی کو ارشاد کرتے ہوئے اس قسم کے مسائل کے بارے میں حکم فرمایا کہ ایسا کام مذھب کی توہین ہے اسے ترک کیا جانا چاہئے اور کئ بار قمہ زنی ترک کرنے اور حسینی مجلس میں خرافات کو ترک کرنے کی تاکید کرتے رہے اور سال ۱۳۸۸ ہجری شمسی(مطابق۲۰۰۹م)مبلغوں کے ملاقات کے دوران آپ نے اس موضوع پر ایک بار پھر تاکید فرمائی ہے ۔ اب چونکہ تاسوعا اور عاشورا نزدیک ہے جامعہ مدرسین حوزہ علمیہ قم کے معظم فقہا کی نظر کا بھی دورہ کرتے ہیں ۔ حوزہ علمیہ قم کے چند فاضل طالبعلموں نے مقام معظم رھبری کے بیانات کے سلسلے میں خط کے ذریعہ بعض علما اور جامعہ مدرسین کے ارکان سے استفتا کیا ہوا تھا ، انہوں نے اپنی نظرات کو بشرح ذیل اعلان کیا ۔ آج یاد دہانی کے لئے اور ہر قسم کے خرافات سے پرہیز کرنے کے لئے اور دشمن کے ہاتھوں بہانہ نہ دینے کے غرض سے اسکا گرداں کرتے ہیں۔

حضرت آیت اﷲسیستانی کا فتوی: 
حضرت آیت اﷲ العظمی سیستانی مدظلہ العالی کی خدمت میں امام خامنہ ای کی طرف سے عزاداری کے حوالے سے صادر کئے گئے مذکورہ احکامات کے دائرہ کار سے متعلق سوال کیا اور وہاں سے جواب آیا کہ <<حضرت آیت اللہ سیستانی کے مطابق معاشرے کے نظم کے حوالے سے فقیہ عادل مقبول کا حکم تمام مؤمنین کے ساتھ ساتھ باقی مجتہدین پر بھی نافذ العمل ہے >>۔  مزید 》》https://goo.gl/VxLtkM