Prophet Muhammad [peace be upon him] urged the believers to adhere to his noble household, to know their right, to respect them, and to honor them, may Allah be pleased with them all. But the question is;
Who are the household of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him?
اہلسنت کے نکتہ نظر سے اہل بیت میں محمد صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم کی ازواج مطہرات، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم کی صاحبزادی فاطمۃ الزھراء ، آپ کے چچا زاد اور داماد حضرت علی اور ان کے صاحبزادے حضرت امام امام حسن اورحضرت امام حسین شامل ہیں۔
بعض سنی علما خلافت عباسیہ کے بانی حضرت عباس بن عبدالمطلب کی اولاد کو بھی اہل بیت میں شمار کرتے ہیں۔
امام سیوطی نے جلالین میں اھل بیت سے مراد سارے اھل بیت اللہ لی ہے ،کیونکہ ان کے لیے بیت اللہ بناتے وقت دو نبیوں نے دعا فرمائی تھی! وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ (127) رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ (128) رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ (ای فی اھل البیت )رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (129)
شیعہ نکتہ نظر سے اہل بیت میں محمد صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم کی صاحبزادی فاطمۃ الزھراء ، آپ کے چچا زاد اور داماد حضرت علی اور ان کے صاحبزادے حضرت امام امام حسن اورحضرت امام حسین شامل ہیں۔ یہ تمام افراد اصحاب کساء کے نام سے بھی مشہور ہیں۔ مزید ان لنکس پر ......https://islamqa.info/ur/10055
Hadeeth Al-Thiqlayn indicates to the concept of the Prophet’s household clarifying that Ahl Al-Bayt are the relatives of Prophet Muhammad and his wives.
To the completion of the previous hadeeth, The companion of the prophet Zayd who narrated Hadeeth Al-Thiqalyn says: “his wives are among his household, but his household are those who charity is forbidden upon them.” One asked: “and who are they?” Zayd answered that they were the household of Ali, household of Aqeel, household of Jaffar, and household of Abbas. The first person asked again: “Upon all of them charity is forbidden?” and Zayd answered by a yes”
Abdulrahman bin Abi Layla, a dignified Companion, says: “Once we asked Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him about how to pray on his household although Allah told us how to pray on him. Prophet Muhammad answered: “Say: ‘O’ Allah send prayers upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, just as You sent prayers upon Ebraheem and the family of Ebraheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty. O’ Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Ebraheem and upon the family of Ebraheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty.”
Then Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him taught them other forms of prayers upon him and his family, and one of the forms is: “O’ Allah, send prayers upon Muhammad and upon the wives and descendants of Muhammad, just as you sent prayers upon the family of Ebraheem, and send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the wives and descendants of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon the family of Ebraheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty.”
Although the wives of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him are named as Ahl Al-Bayt in the Ebraheemite Prayer, we would find a better and a clearer declaration that the wives of the Prophet are his household in this narration:
Anas bin Malik reported: “A banquet of bread and meat was held on the occasion of the marriage of the Prophet to Zainab bint Jahsh. I was sent to invite the people (to the banquet), ………. The Prophet left and went towards the dwelling place of Aisha and said, "Peace and Allah's Mercy be on you, O the people of the house!" She replied, "Peace and the mercy of Allah be on you too. How did you find your wife? May Allah bless you. Then he went to the dwelling places of all his other wives and said to them the same as he said to Aisha and they said to him the same as Aisha had said to him.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Tafseer Al-Quran, Surat Al-Ahzab), (Al-Nisa’ei, Work of the day and night, 271)
In the hadeeth of Al-Efk (the narration of the Lie), the Prophet peace be upon him, while he was on the pulpit narrating charges of adultery from Ubaydillah bin Abi Salool against the Mother of Beleivers, Aisha, says: “O people give me your opinion regarding those people who made a forged story against my family. By Allah, I do not know anything bad about her. By Allah, they accused her of being with a man about whom I have never known anything bad, and he never entered my house unless I was present there, and whenever I went on a journey, he went with me” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Tafseer AL-Quran, Surat AL-Nour)
Now, let us see what language has to say about this issue. Arabic Language scholars are very clear in identifying the wives of a man as his household. Ibn Manthoor says in the Tongue of the Arabs (Lisan Al-Arab): “Ahl Al-Bayt: its dwellers, Ahl Al-Rajul (family of a man) is the closest people to him, and the household of Prophet Muhammad may Allah have peace on him is his wives, his daughters, and his son-in-law who is Ali bin Abi Talib”
Al-Fayrooz Al-A’abadi says in Qamoos Al-Muheet: “Ahl Al-Amr is its rulers, Ahl Al-Bayt is its dwellers, Ahl Al-Mathhab (sect) is its who believe in it, Ahl Al-Rajul is his wife, and Ahl Al-Nabi is his wives, his daughters, and his son-in-law i.e. Ali may Allah be pleased of him.”
Al-Zubaydi says in Taj Al-Aroos (The Bride’s Crown): “Ahl Al-Mathhab is its believers, Ahl Al-Rajul is his wife and children, and this is how the verse: “and was travelling with his family” is explained as his wives and family. Ahl Al-Nabi is his wives, daughters, and his son-in-law Ali. It was said that the descendant of a man is Ahl Al-Rajul. In the Quran: “Enjoin prayer on thy family, and be constant therein,” “And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless,” and “let mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you Ahl Al-Bayt, He is the most benign and most exalted.”
In addition to the Prophetic narrations and to the Arabic Language scholars’ sayings, the Quran itself testifies that wives are included in the phrase “Ahl A-Bayt.”
The Quran called Prophets’ wives as their household. Allah says: “so he said to his family, "Tarry ye; I perceive a fire; perhaps I can bring you some burning brand therefrom, or find some guidance at the fire”. And it is known that only Mousa’s wife was with him and no one else.
In the story of Zaleekha, the wife of Al-Azeez, when she wanted to temp Yousif, Allah says: “She said: "What is the (fitting) punishment for one who formed an evil design against thy family, but prison or agrievous chastisement?"
Also, Allah says: “Now when Moses had fulfilled the term, and was travelling with his family.” Al-Qumi says in his Tafseer: “When the time had come, Mousa took his wife, Shu’ayb provided Mousa, and Mousa lead his goats. When Mousa wanted to leave, Shu’ayb told him: “Go, Allah made it privately for you.” Therefore, Mousa lead his goats aiming Egypt. Mousa and his wife were in a place when a cold breeze, wind and darkness stroked Mousa and his family. Then, Mousa saw a fire, where Allah said the verse: “Now when Moses had fulfilled the term, and was travelling with his family.”
Included in the term “Ahl Al-Bayt” are Ali, Al-Hasan, Al-Hussain, and Fatima, may Allah be pleased with them all as it is mentioned in Hadeeth Al-Kisa’a (the narration of the cloak) that is narrated by Muslim. The mother of Believers, Aisha says: “One day, the messenger of Allah left the house at the afternoon and he was wearing a cloak. Then Hasan bin Ali came and the Prophet took him under his cloak. Next Hussain bin Ali came and the Prophet took him under his cloak. After that Fatima came and the Prophet took her under his cloak. Finally, Ali came, and the Prophet took him under his cloak. Then the Prophet said: “And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless”
In retrospect, it is cleared that the household of Prophet Muhammad are his wives, the family of Ali (Hasan, Hussain, and Fatima), the family of Aqeel, the family of Abbas, and the family of Jaffar. Those are the ones who Prophet Muhammad ordered us to dignify and respect. Hadeeth Al-Thiqlain did not testify to the infallibility of anyone of them, but raised their status. Using the verse of Purification and hadeeth Al-Kisa’a to prove Ali’s infallibility is non-sense. We prove that in another article under the title “The purification verse & Hadeeth Al-kisa'a A Scientific Dialogue.” Please refer to it.
PEOPLE OF HOUSEHOLD OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD [PBUH]
Christians have monopolized on the memory of Prophet Jesus, despite the fact that the Muslims have a greater claim to him. Likewise, the Shia have monopolized on the memory of the Ahlel Bayt, despite the fact that the Sunnis have a greater claim to the Prophetic Household. Loving Ahlel Bayt is an obligation for Sunni Muslims, and this means the entire Ahlel Bayt–not just a segment of the Ahlel Bayt like the Shia do. The following articles will clear up some popular misconceptions.
Christians have monopolized on the memory of Prophet Jesus, despite the fact that the Muslims have a greater claim to him. Likewise, the Shia have monopolized on the memory of the Ahlel Bayt, despite the fact that the Sunnis have a greater claim to the Prophetic Household. Loving Ahlel Bayt is an obligation for Sunni Muslims, and this means the entire Ahlel Bayt–not just a segment of the Ahlel Bayt like the Shia do. The following articles will clear up some popular misconceptions.
- Prophet’s Wives are Ahlel Bayt
- Prophet’s Daughters are Ahlel Bayt
- Word Games With Verse 33:33
- Half Hadith-ing (Zaid ibn Arqam)
- The Status of Ahlel Bayt
- Foundation of Shi’ism is Nasibi
- Slander Against Prophet’s Wives
- Mothers of the Believers
- Al-Ifk: Quran Defends Aisha [R.A]
- First Lady of Islam
- Verse 33:33 Does Not Make Anyone Infallible
- The Wives of Prophet Nuh (pbuh) and Prophet Lut (pbuh)
- Shia Du’a (Saname Quraish) Curses Two of Prophet’s Wives
- Love for Ahlel Bayt and Sahabah
- Aisha (R.A) Didn’t Do Ghusl in Front of Men
- How the Shia Abandoned the Ahlel Bayt
- Fatwa: Kufr to Slander Bibi Aisha
- Al-Islam.org says: Do not name your daughter with the name “Aisha”
- Who are the Ahlel Bayt?
- Grand Ayatollah On Cursing the Prophet’s Wives/Companions and Taqiyyah
- 154 Wise Sayings of Sayyiduna Ali
- Sayyida Aisha is Part of Ahlel Bayt
- The Prophet Defends His Wife Aisha
- The Status of the 12 Imams
- Grand Ayatollah al-Kho’i Says Wife is Part of a Man’s “Ahl”
- Tahreef (Tampering) of Verse 33:33
Christians have monopolized on the memory of Prophet Jesus, despite the fact that the Muslims have a greater claim to him. Likewise, the Shia have monopolized on the memory of the Ahlel Bayt, despite the fact that the Sunnis have a greater claim to the Prophetic Household. Loving Ahlel Bayt is an obligation for Sunni Muslims, and this means the entire Ahlel Bayt – not just a segment of the Ahlel Bayt like the Shia do. The following articles will clear up some popular misconceptions.* Prophet’s Wives are Ahlel Bayt
* Prophet’s Daughters are Ahlel BaytThis article proves that the Prophet's wives are Ahlel Bayt. It also presents a definition of what the term "Ahlel Bayt" means which may be different to the one prevalent among our Shia bretheren. In the Quran, Allah Himself declares the Prophet's wives to be the Ahlel Bayt and, thus, it is our assertion that they should not be excluded from our love.
* Word Games With Verse 33:33Many of the Shia claim that the Prophet had only one daughter, namely Fatima, and hence deny the very existence of his other three daughters. This article proves without a doubt “using the Quran“ that the Prophet had more than one daughter. Thus, it is our assertion that all four of the Prophet's lovely daughters are part of the Ahlel Bayt.
* Half Hadith-ing (Zaid ibn Arqam)It is sad and unfortunate that some people have tried to change the meaning of the Quran by playing word games with it. This article refutes these far-fetched theories such as the claims that Allah changed tenses in the Quran from feminine to masculine. We shall also examine the claims by the Shia Ayatollahs that the Quranic Verse 33:33 has been tampered with.
* The Status of Ahlel BaytSome people enjoy posting half of a Hadith in order to â€œproveâ€ their point. This is what we call "Half Hadith-ing." One of the most popular of the Hadith that are manipulated in such a manner is a narration by Zaid ibn Arqam. We shall examine this Hadith in this article and the reader will, Insha-Allah, realize that this Hadith actually affirms that the Prophet's wives are Ahlel Bayt.
* Foundation of Shi’ism is NasibiAll Muslims believe in respecting the Ahlel Bayt. However, many Shia espouse a viewpoint that goes against the Islamic concepts of egalitarianism and is a rejection of Quranic exhortations.
* Slander Against Prophet’s WivesIt is the Shia who are the Nasibis, because they hate the Prophet’s wives. The Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah loves the entire Ahlel Bayt, including the Prophet’s wives, all his children, Ali and his family, etc., whereas the Shia only love one segment of the Ahlel Bayt and despise other parts of it.
* Mothers of the BelieversThe Shia scholars do not have a good opinion of Aisha or of Hafsa. This article chronicles some of the allegations levied against the Mothers of the Believers. This collection of Shia sayings is very heart-wrenching for those who love the lovely wives of the Prophet of Islam.
* Al-Ifk : Quran Defends AishaThe Quran bestows the title of “Mother of the Believers” (Umm Al Mumineen) to Aisha, Hafsa , and the rest of the Prophet’s wives: “The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their mothers.” (Quran, 33:6) If Aisha is the mother of the believers, then the people who slander her, insult her, and criticize her can not truly be believers.
* First Lady of IslamThe Munafiqoon slandered Aisha in the incident of al-Ifk, which took place in the lifetime of the Prophet. Allah Almighty Himself revealed verses in the Quran not only defending Aisha against slander but condemning anyone who does such a thing as an unbeliever. Slander against Aisha is Haram according to the Quran.
* Verse 33:33 Does Not Make Anyone InfallibleAisha is of the Ahlel Bayt; she is the First Lady of Islam, the Queen of our hearts, the Mother of the Believers, and the beloved of Allah’s Beloved. Anyone who disrespects her, thereby disrespects the Prophet. This article is food for thought, a simple series of logical arguments backed by the Word of Allah.
* The Wives of Prophet Nuh and Prophet LutThe Shia make the claim that verse 33:33 makes the Ahlel Bayt infallible. However, this seems to be an exaggeration, and an unbiased analysis of verse 33:33 shows that nobody is made infallible by this verse. Furthermore, we expose the inconsistencies of many Shia missionaries and hope to impress upon our readers the fallacy in much of Shia theology.
* Shia Du’a (Saname Quraish) Curses Two of Prophet’s WivesThe wives of Prophet Nuh and Prophet Lut were sinful and condemned in the Quran. The Shia bring up these two women in order to justify their position on the wife of Prophet Muhammad, whom they revile. We hope to, Insha-Allah, expose the weakness of the Shia argument in this article.
* Love for Ahlel Bayt and SahabahHow is it that Shia missionaries can do Taqiyyah and deny that they hate the Prophet's wives, when they have authentic du'as which condemn Aisha and Hafsa, ask Allah to curse them, and to beat them. This is the depth of their hatred for the Prophetic Household, the Ummahatul Mu'mineen (Mothers of the Believers), and the Prophet's lovers. A very famous Shia du'a called Saname Quraish condemns Abu Bakr and Umar bin Khattab , as well as their two daughters: Aisha bint Abu Bakr and Hafsa bint Umar bin Khattab, the two lovely wives of the Prophet.
* Aisha Didn’t Do Ghusl in Front of MenThe Ahlel Bayt refers to the family of the Prophet. The Sahabah refers to the friends of the Prophet . The Shia claim to love the Ahlel Bayt only, and hate the Sahabah. The Nasibis, on the other hand, love the Sahabah but hate the Ahlel Bayt. Both groups are incorrect in their views. The correct position is to love both the Ahlel Bayt (Prophet's family) and the Sahabah (Prophet's friends).
* How the Shia Abandoned the Ahlel BaytIt is unfortunate that we find many instances in our discourses with the Shia where they willingly take Hadith from Sahih Bukhari out of context to prove their point. One such instance is the Hadith about Bibi Aisha teaching two men how to do Ghusl. The Shia will claim that the Sunnis believe that Bibi Aisha did Ghusl naked in front of two non-mehrem men. In this article, we disprove this horrendous slander, both against Bibi Aisha and against our book of Hadith.
* Fatwa: Kufr to Slander AishaThe Shia have changed the meaning of Ahlel Bayt (the Prophetic Household) and have pitted some members of the Prophetic Household against others. It seems they do not truly harbor love for the real Ahlel Bayt, including the Prophet's wives whom they curse, and the Prophet's daughters whom they deny.
* Al-Islam.org says : Do not name your daughter with the name “Aisha”The scholars of Sunni Islam are all agreed that whoever accuses Aisha of that which Allaah has stated she is innocent of, is a kaafir. This is because he has rejected Allaah's statement of her innocence in Soorat al-Noor. Whoever feels hatred towards the beloved of the Messenger of Allah will deserved to be despised by him on the Day of Resurrection.
* Who are the Ahlel Bayt ?The depths of hatred that the Shia Ulema have for the Prophet’s family (i.e. the way in which they disassociate themselves from his wife Aisha) manifests itself in the following fatwa passed by the Aalim Network on the very popular Shia website, Al-Islam.org. The Shia are discouraged by their scholars to name their daughters by the beautiful name of “Aisha”– such is their hatred for the beloved of our beloved Prophet.
* 154 Wise Sayings of Sayyiduna AliWho are the Ahlel Bayt? Answer: Primarily, the Prophet’s wives are Ahlel Bayt. After them, there are others who were also called that, but it should be remembered that the ones with the most right to be called Ahlel Bayt are first and foremost the Prophet’s wives.
* The Prophet Defends His Wife AishaAli was an embodiment of knowledge and wisdom. In this article, we relate 154 of his wise sayings. May Allah be well-pleased with him!
The Shia propagandists slander the Prophet’s wife, Aisha. It should be noted, however, that the Munafiqoon (Hypocrites) and Kufaar (Disbelievers) have always sought to hurt the Prophet by slandering his wife; as such, there is nothing new in the Shia tactics. During the lifetime of the Prophet, many of the enemies of Islam hurt the Prophet by slandering his wife, and this pained the Prophet very much.* Tahreef (Tampering) of Verse 33:33“Each one of them was a pious, upright Muslim from the noble Prophetic Tree and many of them were also among the foremost people of knowledge in their time.”
The classical scholars of the Shia claimed that there was Tahreef (tampering) of the Quran. They claimed that the “evil” Sahabah changed the Quran, and that the Mushaf we have today is not the real Quran (at least not in its unaltered form). The contemporary Shia scholars, however, completely deny that they believe in Tahreef or that this belief was ever a part of their sect. Nonetheless, despite this denial, many of the Shia Ulema hold onto the belief known as Tahreef bit Tarteeb (tampering in the order of the verses of the Quran such that the meaning of it is changed). Many Shia scholars claim that verse 33:33 was altered in such a manner.
The People of Household of Prophet (peace be upon him)
Ah lul Bait
There is some difference of opinion among two main branches of Islam about the members of the household of Propeht ( Ahl-al-Bayt) mentioned at Chapter 33 (Ahzab), verse 33 of Qur’an. The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that basically the Household of Propeht ( Ahl-al-Bayt) include his wives and children, according to normal meanings of Arabic word Ahl-al-Bayt as mentioned in Qur’an and the meanings according to Arabic language. According to some traditions, however the Prophet (peace be upn him) also added his beloved daughter Fatima, son in law and couson Ali ibn Abi Talib, their sons Hasan and Hussain among the Household of Propeht (Ahl-al-Bayt). According to the the Si’a scholars, the Household of Propeht (Ahl-al-Bayt) mentioned include his daughter Fatima, son in law and couson Ali ibn Abi Talib, their sons Hasan and Hussain. This difference of opinion is beiing analyzed with the internal and external evidence of Qur’an and Traditons respectivel.
The People of The House Hold (Ahl-al-Bayt):
Internal Evidence from Qur’an: All the renowned scholars agree that the best and authentic explanation of any word is the one found with in Qur’an. In Arabic language word ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ (literary meaning: people of the house) is a polite form of addressing the wife and members of the family specially the wives. This word ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ (people of household) has been used at three places in Qur’an; firstly for Sarah, the wife of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him), secondly, for the mother of Moses and thirdly, for the wives of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in Qur’an: “They (angels) said (to Sarah): "Dost thou wonder at Allah's decree? The grace of Allah and His blessings on you O ye People of The House! (‘Ahl-al-Bayt’) for He is indeed worthy of all praise full of all glory!"(Qur’an;11:73). “And we ordained that He (infant Moses) refused suck at first, until (his sister came up and) said: "Shall I point out to you the people of a House (Ahl-al-Bayt) that will nourish and bring Him up for you and be sincerely attached to him?”(Qur’an;28:12).
The Discourse & Context:
In the discourse Allah says: “O wives of the Prophet! (yaa nisaa' an- nabey) You are not like the other women: if you fear Allah, then you should not be complaisant while talking to the men who are not closely related to you, lest the one in whose heart is a disease may thereby be encouraged, and speak using suitable good words. And stay quietly In your houses, and make not a dazzling display, like that of the (women of) former times of Ignorance; and establish regular prayer, and give regular charity; and obey Allah and His Messenger. and Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the (Prophet’s) household (Ahl-al-Bayt), and to make you pure and spotless. Remember the revelations of Allah and wise sayings which are recited in your homes, surely Allah is aware of even the finest mysteries.”(Qur’an;33:32-34). It is evident from the discourse that the wives of the Prophet are being addressed here.
This is further accentuated, by reading verse 33:33 in its context, i.e. connecting with a preceding (33:32) and following (33:34) verses. It becomes absolutely clear from the Discourse and context that, in verse (33:33), Qur’an is referring to the wives of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ . The high status of the wives of Apostle have been emphasized earlier in same chapter: “The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are as their mothers..”(Qur’an;33:6). No one, including the Apostle has the authority to change the words of God: “O Prophet! Recite what has been revealed to you from the Book of your Lord: no one is authorized to change His Words and if you dare to make any change, you will find no refuge to protect you from Him.”(Qur’an;). Hence form the internal evidence from Qur’an, it is established without any doubt that the word ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ (people of the house) here means the wives of Prophet.
External Evidence- Tradition:
However once verses 33:33 is read in the light of the narrative of Umme Salama; ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ , in addition to his wives, also include his daughter, Fatima, his cousin and son-in-law Ali and his grandsons (children of Fatima and Ali), Hasan and Husain. It is also supported by Aisha who narrated: “Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Hasan ibn Ali. He wrapped him under it, then came Husain and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hasan). Then came Fatima and he took her under it, then came Ali and he also took him under it and then said: Allah only desires to take away any un-cleanliness(rijsa) from you, O people of the household ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’, and purify you (thorough purifying) (wa yu-tahirakum tathira) (Qur’an:33:33)”.(Sahih Muslim Hadith Number:1118). In an other narration it is mentioned that, Ayesha asked the Apostle that she was also part of ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ , (hence be taken under the cloak) the Prophet asked her to remain away as she is already part of it. Not taking Aish’a and Umme Salma under the cloak, which covered four family members does not imply that the Prophet excluded them from his Household (‘Ahl-al-Bayt’). He did not put them under the cloak, because the wives are already part of his Household (‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ ), addressed by Qur’an as such. However to thwart any misunderstanding about four other family members not mentioned in Qur’an the Prophet felt the need to emphasize this aspect which was not required for the his wives.
Commentary by Ibn Kathir:
Ibn Kathir, has narreted many conflicting traditions about this verse. According to some traditons the wives of Prophet are included in the Ahl-eBait (Household), while in others, in addition to the wives of the Prophet, his dauther Fatima, Ali, grandsons Hasan and Hussain has also been added, while some are vague. According to the tradition attributed to Zaid bin Arqam even the close relatives of the Prophet, prophibited to accept cahirty (sadqah) like decendents of Aquil, Jafar and Abbas are also part of ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ . One traditon is narrated by Abudawood Ami Nasi bin Haris, a lier (kazz’ab) so his tradion is considered as weak (gharib). Wasla bin Asq’a narrates that the Prophet also acceeptd his request to include him among Ahl-e-Bait. Akrama had been announcing in the markets that verse 33:33 was revealed about wives of the Prophet (Ibn e Jarir), he even challenged for open debate (mubahila) on this point. After considering all tradions, Ibn Kathir summed up that: Any one blessed with the light of inner spritual heights and well versed in pondering over Qur’an, will at a glance understand that the wives of the Prophet are included (in verse 33:33) without any doubt because the Discourse from the begening of the verse, is about the wives of the Prophet. This is the reason that in the next verse Allah says, in continuuation: “Remember the revelations of Allah and wise sayings which are recited in your homes, surely Allah is aware of even the finest mysteries”(Qur’an;33:34). The wives of Prophet have special unique honor, not shared by any one else that; the belessings of Allah and Revelitions were revelaed in their houses. Among them sepcially the The Mother of the Faithfuls, Ayesha Sidiqah has the heighest honor and distinction, the Revelilton did not come at the bed of any woman except her bed as mentioned in the Traditons. She was the only wife of the Prophet who was a maiden before her marriage with the Prophet. Her bed was for none except the Prophet, so she was fully entitled for this great honor. However since the wives of Prophet are part of ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’ , the other close relatives of the Prophet as mentioned in the Traditions of the ‘Cloak’ are also included in ‘Ahl-al-Bayt’. Allah selected them to be the wives for the Prophet with His full Knowledge;“Allah is aware of even the finest mysteries.
Significance of Household of the Prophet:
There is special significance about the Household of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Ali, the cousin and son in law of Prophet was very also his close associate, the first among the children to accept Islam. Besides being fourth Rightly Guided Caliph, his services to the Prophet and Islam are numerous.
Fatima was the beloved daughter of Prophet, her sons Hassan and Husain besides loving grandsons of Apostle rendered great services to Islam. The position of the Consorts of Purity (azwaj mutahharat), the wives of the holy Prophet is very special. They were not like ordinary women, nor was their marriage an ordinary marriage, in which only personal or social considerations enter, Allah says: “The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are as their mothers..”(Qur’an;33:6). They as mothers of believer (Umuhatul Momineen) had a special position and special responsibilities, in the matter of guiding and instructing women who came into the fold of Islam. Islam is a Way of Life, and the Muslims are a family: women have as much place in Islam as men, and their intimate instruction must obviously be through women. While they were to be kind and gentle to all, they were to be guarded on account of their special position lest people might misunderstand or take advantage of their kindness. All the Consorts in their high position had to work and assist as Mothers of the Ummah. Theirs were not idle lives, like those of Odalisques, either for their own pleasure or the pleasure of their husband.
Views of Shi’a Scholars:
The Shi’a scholars have given three reasons for excluding the wives of the Prophet from the Ahl-ul-Bait in verse 33:33. Firstly, that the narration is taken as an indication that only those who entered under the cloak were those who were purified (not incicated in verse 33:33). Secondly it is argued that verse 33:33, cannot refer to wives of the Prophet, especially 'Aisha. 'Aisha, for example, was known to be in frequent menstration, and yet menstration is clearly an impurity. Thirdly, her participiation in war against 4th Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib would also indicate that she was not part of this select group, since it is impossible for both (Ali and Ayeish) to have been infallible (according to Shi’a concept, ‘purtiy’ here means ‘infallabiity’) and for both to have engaged in armed conflict against each other.
It is evident from the context, as explained above that verse 33:33, is about wives of the Prophet. It is later, as mentioned in Traditions that the Prophet also added Fatima, Ali, Hassan and Husain. The purity is meant to be the purity of mind as well as body, the menstration, frequent or infrequen, result in temporay physical inmpurity, so women are exapted from Salah (prayer) during mansturation, but it does not affect their purity of mind. No human can remain physidcally pure all the time. The impurity after sexual interaction is common to bothe men and women. Hence temporaty physical impurity should not form basis for excluding wives or any one wife of the Prophet from his household, because it goes agains the clear wordings of verse 33:33 and its context at verse 33:32, wlhich starts with “yaa nisaa' an- nabey - O wives of the Prophet!” . More over Allah says: “Unclean women are for unclean men, and unclean men are for unclean women; and pure women are for pure men, and pure men are for pure women. They are free from the slanderer's accusations; for them there shall be forgiveness and honorable provision from Allah.” (Qur’an;24.26). Hence it leaves no doubt about the purity of the consorts of Prophet (peace be upon him), himself the purist of human being.
The political differences between Ali and Aisha resulting in to armed conflict due to confusion, misunderstanidng, conspiracy or any other reason notwithstnding, is a matter between two honrable membrs of the Household of Prophet (‘Ahl-al-Bayt’), Aish’a as wife of Prophet, honored as Mother of Believers by Qur’an. Hence, instead of passing judgement on, members of family of the Prophet, it is batter for the believers to leave such matters to Allah, lest they fall in to some thing not to the liking of Allah and the Prophet. According to Qur’an: “Allah will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection concerning the matters in which you differ.”(Qur’an;22:69); “In fact, your Lord knows best those people who have strayed from His Way and He knows best those who are on the
Right Way.”(Qur’an;6:117); “The believers are brothers to one another, therefore, make reconciliation between your brothers and fear Allah, so that you may be shown mercy.”(Qur’an;49:10). “They were a people that have passed away. They shall reap the fruits of what they did, and you shall for what you do. You shall not be questioned about what they did.”(Qur’an;2:134).
It has been established form the analysis of internal and external evidence from Qur’an, that the People of The Household, (Ahl-al-Bayt), include the wives of Prophet, his daughter Fatima, son in law Ali and grandsons Hasan and Hussain (Allah may be plaeased with them all). The Household of Prophet (peace be upon him) is highly loved by the Muslims. The tragic martyrdom of Hussein Ibn Ali, along with his companions in 680 C.E at Karbla (
) is the most awful episode of Muslim history, which is deeply regretted by the all Muslims. Iraq
The People of Household & Infallibility
“..(O Muhammad) warn your nearest kinsmen,”(Qur’an;26:214).
“by the soul and Him Who perfected it and inspired it with knowledge
of what is wrong for it andwhat is right for it: indeed successful will be the one
who keeps it pure, and indeed failure will be the one who corrupts it!”(Qur’an;91:7-10)
A grup claim that the family of the Prophet, which according to them only include his daughter Fatima, son in law Ali, their childeren Hasan and Hussain (Allah may be pleased with them), are inflllable. They derive this inference from their interpretation of verse 33 at Chapter 33 (Ahzab) and verse 82 of Chapter 26 (Yasin) of Qur’an. Hence they are to obeyed in all affairs after the Prophet. Allah says : "Indeed Allah wishes (yurid) to remove from you all impurities, people of the house, (‘Ahl-al-Bayt’) and to purify you with a thorough purification."(Qur’an;33:33); "Indeed, the command (a’mr) of Allah is such that if He desires a thing, he says to it, "Be!", and it is (kun fa- yakon)”(Qur’an;36:82). The Divine intention is the complete cause for all created entities, and that it is impossible to seperate a cause from its effect. Thus by drawing infrence from verse 33:33 & 36:82; the fact that Allah says He "intends" or "desires" (yurid) to remove all impurity from the family of the Prophet, that means, He has actually done so (A’mr). Therefore they are granted special knowledge including of hellfire, which immunizes the four family members of Prophet from such sins, and this "immunization" is the actual linguistic meaning of the word "infallible" ( Arabic ma’sum). [Note: Word ‘masum’ (infalliable) is not found in Qur’an].
Comparative Analysis of Verses 33:33 & 36:82 of Qur’an:
Instant Execution of Allah’s Wish (Yurid) :
In order to draw correct infrences from two verses of Qur’an; 33:33 & 36:82, it is appropriate to analyse each veres in the original Arabic, with translations.
“Allah's wish (yurid ) is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the (Propeht’s) Household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing.”(Qur’an;33:33). Transilitration: “… 'inna-maa yurid 'allaah li- yudhhib can -kum ar- rijs 'ahl al- bayt wa- yut.ahhir -kum tat.her(an)”(Qura’n;33:33).
It may be noted that at verse 33:33 Arabic word yurid has been translated as ‘wish’.
"Indeed, the command (a’mr) of Allah is such that if he desires (arada) a thing, he says to it, "Be!"(kun), and it is." (Qur’an;36:82). In verse 36:82, four different Arabic words, (not used in Verse;33:33) have been used which include (1) Command (a’mr), desires (arada) and "Be!"(kun), and it is." (fayakun) for instant execution of Command.
Comparison of Verse; 33:33 With 36:82 :
Translation of both verses may be compared for differences :-
1. Allah's wish (a’mr) is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Ahl-ul-Bait, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing.”(Qur’an;33:33).
2."Indeed, the command (a’mr) of Allah is such that if he desires (arada) a thing, he says to it, "Be!" !(kun), and it is." (Qur’an;36:82).
The critical analysis of verse (Qur’an;36:82) and (Qur’an;33:33), commonly quoted to establish the infallibility of The People of Household (Ahl-al-Bayt), reveals the dichotimies and contradictions in such a claim.
Firstly the Arabic words used to indicate ‘Desire’ or ‘Wish’ in both the verses are not identical. At verse 33:33 , Arabic word ‘Yurid’ has been used for wish while at verse 36:82, Arabic word ‘Araada’ have been used. Now the menaings of these two words ‘Yurid’ and ‘Araada’ according to their use in Qur’an is to be considered to draw the inference, weather both are identical in meanings or otherwise.
The Wish of God (Yurid) at Verse 33:33 :
The Arabic word Yurid has been translated as ‘wish’ of God. The word (Yurid) has been used at 46 places in Qur’an, in the sense of ; wish, intneds, desire, purpose, plan, will or seek. According to English dictionary; ‘Wish’ means; want, desire, demand, bidding, request, requirement, instruction, direction, order, command, liking, fondness, longing, hope, yearning, fancy, aspiration, inclination, urge, whim, craving. If something is desired or expected to be done in present or future, it may called as ‘desirable’.(called Mazare’a in Arabic grammar, the word is prefixed with ‘yu’ or ‘yeh’ i.e. ‘Yuriddoon’ [who wishes, (not wished)], ‘yu-menun’ (they believe). The use of Arabic word ‘Yurid’ in Qur’an indicate that this word has been generally used to indicate; wish, urging some thing to be done in present or future or desired involving efforts by the human due to choice and ‘Freedom of Will’ availale to him. Hence it will not be appropite to decuce that Yurid means instant executable wish, or forced execution of ‘His Wish’ through Divine Decree. Some examples from vreses of Qur’an are as follows:-
“But man wishes (yurid) to keep on doing evil in the future as well.”(Qur’an;75:5), “Nay, each of them (non believers) wants (yurid)a scripture of his own to be unrolled before them.”(Qur’an;74:52), “If anyone is seeking(yurid) honor, let him know that all honor belongs to Allah Alone…” (Qur’an;35:10), “Today when Our clear revelations are recited to them, they say: "This man only wants (yurid) to turn you away from those gods to whom your forefathers have been worshipping..”( Qur’an;34:43). “(After witnessing both the miracles of Moses, Pharaoh) said to the Chiefs around him: "This is indeed a sorcerer well- versed: who wants (yurid) to drive you out from your land by the force of his magic. Now what is your advice?”( Qur’an;26:34-35). “Allah desires (yurid) to clarify, and guides you to the ways which were followed by the righteous people before you, and turns to you in mercy. Allah is the Knowledgeable, Wise.”(Qur’an;). “Allah wishes (yurid) to forgive you but those who follow their lusts wish to see you deviate far away from the
Right Way.”(Qur’an;). “Allah wishes (yurid) to lighten your burdens because humans have been created weak by nature.”(Qur’an;). “O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. if ye are In a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. but if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been In contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah does not wish (yurid) to burden you; He only wishes to purify you (wa- laakin yurid li- yu-tahhir –kum) and to perfect His favor upon you, so that you may be thankful.”(Qur’an;5:6) .
Allah mentions(verse;5:6), that He wishes to purify(wa- laakin yurid li- yu-tahhir –kum) the believers through performing bath,abulition and dry abulition. It simply means that Allah is advising the Muslims to perform these actions to gain purity before performing Salah (prayer). By implication if they do not perform these acts they will remain impure. It will be wrong to assume on this basis; that since Allah ‘wishes’ (yurid) to purify the Muslims, and that His wish gets executed instantly according to verse 36:82 (claim to be analysed later, with context), hence all Muslims who perform bath,abulition, and dry abulition have been made ‘pure’ free form sin or errors – infallible ! (It is unanimously known not to be the case) .
Hence it is now evident that in Qur’an (verses; 75:5, 74:52, 35:10, 34:43, 26:34-35, 4:26,27,28, 5:6 & 33:33) the use of word Yurid translated as ‘WISH’ does not mean that the ‘Wish’ (Yurid) instantly stands executed, because it is not Divine Command (a’mr) but an advisory desirable wish, , which the addressee are urged to execute. This is in accordance with the Divine Design of Human Creation, involving ‘Free Will, Choice and Accountability’. Consequently it is now obvious that in verse 33:33 use of word Yurid translated as‘WISH’ does not mean that the ‘unclenless’ (sins and erros) has been removed from the member of the Household of Propeht and made pure, sinless, error free or infllible. This is also not supported throgh the context, where the member of the Household of Propeht have been advised to perform some acts and refrain form certain things, because Allah desires (Yurid) them to be pure and clean. In other words it is implied that if they adopt the desired behaviour and practices they will be blessed with cleanliness and purity, not other wise.
Command (A’mr) at Verse 36:82 :
While narrating the process of creation of the heavens, the earth and all that lies between them, two words, the ‘Creation’ (khalaq), and ‘Command’ (a’mr) have been used by Qur’an. The difference between these words is clearly evident through Qur’an: “We created (khalaqa) the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them in six periods, and no fatigue touched Us.”(Qur’an;50:38); “Surely your Lord is Allah Who created (khalaqa) the heavens and the earth in six aeons and is firmly established on the throne of authority. He makes the night cover the day and the day follow the night automatically. He created the sun, the moon and the stars; made subservient (governed by laws) under His Command (a’mr). Oh, verily, His is the Creation (khalaq) and His is the Command (a’mr). Blessed is Allah, the Lord of the worlds!”(Qur’an;)
The word Command (A’mr) has special significance and meanings, specially in the context of execution of Divine Wish or Desire. The heavens and the earth are creations (khalaqa) of God's Will and Design. God is the final basis of existence, the Cause of all Causes. When Allah decrees some thing He just says ‘kun faya koon’ ("Be!", and it is."). While in the life of created things (khalaqa) there is "proportion and measure", distance or circumstance and a lag of time, [He created (khalaqa) the heavens and the earth in six long periods (Qur’an;7:54)] on the other hand, the "a’mr" Allah's Command (Command, Direction, Design, Ordainment) is a single thing, unrelated to Time, Allah says : “And Our command (a’mr -naa) is but a single (Act),- like the twinkling of an eye.”(Qur’an54:50). Hence in "A’mr" the Design, the Word, the Execution, and the Consequences are but a single Act. The In Arabic grammar word ‘A’mr’ has six clauses, ‘kun’ (Be, executed) being one of them. In verse 36:82, word ‘command’ (A’mr) and ‘desires’ (arada) have been used, in combination with Be! (kun), the result isinstant exectution in the twinking of an eye: “Indeed, the command (A’mr) of Allah is such that if he desires (arada) a thing, he says to it, "Be!"(kun), and it is.!”(Qur’an;36:82).
At verse 33:33, the Arabic word used for Allah's wish is Yurid , which means a desire or expectation, it is not ‘command’ (a’mr) and ‘desire’ (arada) used in verse 36:82 with ‘Be’ (kun) mening instant execution. This aspect needs to be further eloborated. In Allah's Command, the word "Be" (kun) includes everything, without the intervention, of or dependence upon action by any other being or thing whatever. And this is also another phase of the philosophy of Unity. In Qur’an at eight different places (verses) word ‘kun faya koon’ ("Be!", and it is.") has been used in the context of “Creation or Recreation”. Four verses are related about life, death and resurrection (Qur’an;36:81-82, 40:68, 16:38-40, 6:73), while at other four places, it is about creation of Jesus and its similitude to the creation of Adam (Qur’an;3:59, 3:47, 19:35, 2:116-117) (breathing of His spirit in both cases): “Is not He who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like thereof?" - yea, indeed! for He is the Creator Supreme, of skill and knowledge (infinite)! "Indeed, the command (a’mr) of Allah is such that if he desires (arada) a thing, he says to it, "Be!" (kun), and it is.!”(Qur’an;36:81-82).
“It is He who gives life and death; and when He decides (a’mr) upon an affair, He says to it, "Be"(kun), and it is.” (Qur’an;40:68). “They swear their strongest oaths by Allah, that Allah will not raise up those who die: Nay, but it is a promise (binding) on Him In truth: but Most among Mankind realize it not.(They must be raised up), In order that He may Manifest to them the truth of that wherein They differ, and that the rejecters of truth may realize that They had indeed (surrendered to) Falsehood. For to anything which we have willed, we but say the Word, Be; and it is.”(Qur’an;16:38-40). “He is the One Who has created the heavens and the earth to manifest the Truth. On the Day when He will say: "Be," it shall be (the Day of Resurrection). His Word is the truth. He shall be the sole Sovereign on the Day when the trumpet will be blown. He has the full knowledge of the invisible and the visible. He is the Wise, the Aware.”(Qur’an;6:73). “The similitude of Jesus before Allah is As that of Adam; He created Him from dust, then said to him: "Be" and He was.”(Qur’an;). “She (Mary) said: "O My Lord! How shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?" He said: "Even so: Allah creates what He wills : when He hath decreed a plan, He but says to it, 'Be,' and it is!” (Qur’an;). “They say: "(Allah) hath begotten a son" :Glory be to Him.-Nay, to Him belongs all that is In the heavens and on earth: everything renders worship to Him. “He is the Creator of the heavens and the earth ! When He decrees a thing, He needs only to say, "Be," and it is.”(Qur’an;2:116-117).
The important common factor in above mentioned eight verses of Qur’an is that God instantly execute His Command (a’mr) by saying ‘kun faya koon’ ("Be!", and it is.") in the matters related with the Creation and Recreation or Resurrection of human being. These are the acts which does not involve any human Choice or Free Will, granted to human in the divine design. No one has a choice or personal involvement in his birth, death or resurrection. It is significant to note that in these instantly executable Commands (a’mr) there is also involvement of Spirit (Ruh) in the background, which is by the Command (a’mr) of Lord: “They will ask thee concerning the Spirit. Say: The Spirit is by command of my Lord, and of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little.”(Qur’an;17:85). In the creation of Adam! (Qur’an;32:9) and Jesus (Qur’an;21:91) the ‘breathing of His Sprit’ has been mentioned: “It is He Who has given the best form to everything that He has created. He originated the creation(khalaqa) of man (Adam) from clay; then automated the creation of his progeny by an extract of a despicable water; then He fashioned him in due proportion and breathed into him of His spirit. He gave you ears, eyes and heart; yet you are seldom thankful.”(Qur’an;32:7-9). “And We blessed the woman (Marry ), who guarded her chastity, We breathed into her of Our Spirit and We made her and her son a sign for the whole world.”(Qur’an;21:91). God ‘breathing of His spirit in to man” is a metaphor for the divine gift of life and consciousness, or of a “soul” one of the meanings of the term “ruh”. Consequently “the soul of every human being is of the spirit of God”(Razi). Hence from above it appears that the instantly executable Commands (a’mr) of God are related with spiritual aspects of creation and recreation or resurrection, (though He may do what ever He likes), not involving any action or choice of human being. The other creations (khalaqa), i.e. creation of heaven, earth and all in between them took six long periods (Qur’an; & 50:38). On the same analogy, then even the human creation (khalaqa) involving creation from clay, fashioning in due proportion (Qur’an;32:7,9) might have involved some period (may be in evolution), but the last phase “breathing some thing of His Spirit” is the action of Command (a’mr)( Qur’an;32:9, 17:85 & ). It is now amply clear that there is great difference in the advisory ‘Wish (yurid )’ at verse;33:33 and ‘Desire (arada)’ used with ‘Command (a’mr)’ with executive order "Be!" (kun) at verse;36:82. “Indeed, the command (a’mr) of Allah is such that if he desires (arada) a thing, he says to it, "Be!" (kun), and it is.!”(Qur’an;36:82).
The cotext of verse 33:33, needs to be reconsidered: “O wives of the Prophet! You are not like the other women: if you fear Allah, then you should not be complaisant while talking to the men who are not closely related to you, lest the one in whose heart is a disease may thereby be encouraged, and speak using suitable good words. Stay in your homes and do not display your finery as women used to do in the days of ignorance (pre-Islamic days); establish Salah (Prayer), pay Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. O women of the household of Prophet, Allah's wish (yurid ) is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the (Propeht’s) Household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing. Remember the revelations of Allah and wise sayings which are recited in your homes, surely Allah is aware of even the finest mysteries.”(Qur’an;33:32,33,34).
Hence verse (33:33) can not be equated with verse;36:82 to draw anology that ‘Wish (yurid) at verse 33:33, instantly stands executed. Hence when at (33:33) Allah says that He wishes (yurid ) to remove uncleanness from people of the Household Propeht (Ahl-al-Bait), it is an advisory wish of guidance. The family members of Apostle have been advised to undertake some good actions while adhering to some prohibitions. On adherence to this advise by Ahl-al-Bait will reslt in cleanliness which Allah desire to achieve for them(Ahl-al-Bait). This is also in line with the divine design of Creation where by He has put them under tiral by granting freedom of choice in the matters of faith, thus making them accountable.
The Muslims highly revere the family of Prophet (peace be upon him) which include his wives, daughter Fatima, her husband Ali and childeren Hassan and Hussain. They are considered to be at a highly exalted spritual postion in the faith, however they were human being. Allah has deried that He want to remove the unleanliness formAhl-al-Bait, to achive this they have been urged to perfom certain acts and to refrain from some. Making Ahl-al-Bait (excluding his wives) infllable by using His powr or command (a’mr) is neither supported within cotext and references, nor fit in to His laws governing the trial of humanity, though Allah is all powerfull to execute whatever His Wills. It is found through the Qur’an and traditons of Prophet (peace be upon him) that the Messengers of Allah, though chosen and exlated people, were prone to test, trials and human erros in world y matters.
The Divine Law of Justice-Reward & Punishment :
There is freedom of choice available to humanity in the matters of faith and belief; as such he can not blame any one but himself for making a choice of evil against truth: “There shall be no coercion in matters of faith. Distinct has now become the right way from (way of) error: hence, he who rejects the powers of evil and believes in God has indeed taken hold of a support most unfailing, which shall never give way: for God is all hearing, all-knowing” (Qur’an;2:256). “If it had been the will of your Lord that all the people of the world should be believers, all the people of the earth would have believed! Would you then compel mankind against their will to believe?”(Qur’an;10:98). “How shall Allah guide those who reject faith after they accepted it and bore witness that the Apostle was true and that clear signs had come unto them? But Allah guides not a people unjust.”(Qur’an;3:86).
Prophets - Trials & Errors
The prophets are chosen human beings, who are guided, given special knowledge and granted special exalted status by Allah(Qur’an;72:26-27). The are bestowed with knowledge of certainty, (Qur’an;102:5-6, ;102:7, 69:51, 6:75, 17:1). Due to this special knowledge of certainty the Apostles are very firm in their faith. However they continue to remain human and operate with in the ambit of divine laws governing the conduct of human being, although Allah is kind to them, ever ready to help and forgive. The freedom of choice, to over come the temptations of soul and trials further exalt their status. Allah extends His favour to them, as they pray to Him as His humble servants. In their day to day life, as human, at times they do err, but Allah protects them from evil and forgive their errors (as they are not angels). Nevertheless complete divine protection is provided in delivery of Revelations and in conveyance of true message of Allah. They can not commit any error in the maters of Din (faith). Some examples of their trials and errors have been mentioned in Hadith and Qur’an : Adam (Qur’an;20:122), Abraham (Qur’an;2:124), Noah (Qur’an;21:76,11:45-47), Jonah (Younus)( Qur’an;21:87-88),Moses (Qur’an;28:16-17;7:150-151, 18:73), David (Qur’an;8:24-25), Sulaiman (Qur’an;38:34-35), Joseph(48:2). Also in Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 9, Hadith. 532C and Hadith Qudsi Number 36). Muhammad (Peace be upon him) (Qur’an;8:67-68, 3:128-129, , 80:1-4, 66:1, 47:19 & 48:2).
Kinship of Apostle Does not Absolve of Sins:
The blood relationship has no bearing in the matters of faith, reward and punishment. Every individual is responsible for his own deeds and will be accountable to Allah. History is full of examples whereby the very close relatives of the Messengers of Allah could not be saved from divine rage due to their disobedience. Allah says: “O mankind! Have fear of your lord and fear that Day when no father shall avail his son nor a son his father...”(31:33). The examples of kinsfolk of Messengers, who were doomed have been mentioned in Qur’an: Noah(Qur’an;66:10, 21:76, -47), Abraham(Qur’an;9:114, 2:124). Where as the wife of Pharaoh, a pious women sought His Mercy (Qur’an;66:11).
Love of Kinsfolk of The Prophet :
It is generally argued by a group that the Prophet was asked in Qur’an to ask for love of his relations as a reward for his preaching of the divine message of guidance: “That is (the Bounty) whereof Allah gives Glad Tidings to His Servants who believe and do righteous deeds. Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of (qurbaa) those near of kin." And if anyone earns any good We shall give Him an increase of good in respect thereof: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Ready to appreciate (service).”(Qur’an;42:23). [It is generally understood to mean that: No sort of tangible reward does the Prophet of Allah ask for proclaiming the Glad Tidings of Allah. But at least he has the right to ask that his kith and kin (Quraish) should not persecute him and put all sorts of obstacles in his way, while he was preaching for their benefit.] The words used are (ajra 'illaa al- mawaddah fe al- qurbaa) meaning; “No reward do I ask of you for This, except the love of ‘qurbaa’”. There is wide difference among the scholars in the explanation of word ‘qurbaa’.
Majority of the scholars are of the view that it to mean that; “I don not want any reward for this work, but I do want that you (the Quraish) should at least have regards for the kinship which I have with you. You should have in fact have accepted my invitation but If you do not accept, then it is irony that in whole
Arabia you become my worst enemies.” This is the interpretation by Abdullah bin Abbas, which have been quoted by through numerous narrators by Imam Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Jarir, Tabri, Behqui and Ibn Saad. Same interpretation has been narrated by Mujahid, Ekrama, Katawa, Suddi, Abu Malik, Abdur Rahamn bin Zaid, Bin Aslam, Zuhak, Atta bin Dinar and other renowned exegetes.
One group take the word ‘qurbaa’ in the meaning of ‘aqarab’ (relatives), and explain the mainings of this verse as: “I do not want any reward from you, except that you should love my ‘aqarab’”. Some people from this group take the meanings of ‘aqarab’ as all decedents of Abdul Mutalib (grandfather of Apostle), while some restrict the meanings to Ali,
Fatima and their children. This explanation has been attributed to Saed bin Jubair and Umru bin Shuaib. In some traditions this explanation has also been attributed to Ibn Abbas and Ali bin Hussain (Zainul Abdin). This explanation can not be acceptable due to many reasons: Firstly, once Surah Ash Shur’a was revealed at Makka at that time Ali and Fatima were not married as yet, hence there is no question of children. All the decedents of Abdul Mutalib were not supporting Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), rather many were openly opposing him, the opposition of Abu Lahab is well known. Secondly Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) did not have relations with in Bani Abdul Mutalib, he had relations with all families of Quraish through his father, mother and wife Khadija. There were his close companions and worst enemies among them. It is inconceivable and impossible that leaving all relations he would have only restricted his ‘demand for the love of Bani Abdul Mutalib. The third and most important point is that, the messenger invites and raises his voice for the invitation towards the message of Allah, form a very high pedestal, it is below his stature and dignity that he should request for reward in the form of love for his relatives, no sensible man can think of it that Allah would have taught His messenger such a matter and the messenger would have said it while standing among Quraish.
The narratives of messengers mentioned in Qur’an, reveal that messengers one after an other repeatedly ask his nation that; ‘he does not want any reward form them, his reward is with Allah”(Qur’an;10:72, 11:29, 51, 26:109,127,145, 164, 180). In Surah Yasin it is mentioned: “Follow the ones who ask no reward of you and are rightly guided.”(Qur’an;36:21). In Qur’an, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has been repeatedly asked to say : “I do not ask for any reward from you”(Qur’an;6:9, 12:104, 23:72, 25:57, 34:47, 52:40, 68:46 ). Keeping all these verses of Qur’an in view, there is no rationale that the Prophet (peace be upon him) should have asked the people that as the reward for his work of calling them towards Allah, they should love his relations. Considering the addresses of this verse, which are not the believers (Muslims), but the pagans of Makka such a demand seems to be out of place. The address form the beginning is towards the pagans and even after this verse, they continues to remain addresses. In such an address, there is no question of asking for such a favour form the opponents. Reward can be asked form those people who appreciate that a valuable work is being done for their benefit, where as the pagans of Makka, were bitterly opposed to the preaching of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) against their centuries old beliefs of paganism, idolatry, and other social norms customs of era of ignorance. They were considering his preaching as grave crime and wanted to even physically eliminate him.(Page 501, volume 4; ‘Tafheem ul Qur’an’, by Abul A’la Moududi). In fact there is assertion not to ask them for any reward, and that he will get never ending reward from Allah: “Or have you, O Prophet, demanded a reward from them, that they are overburdened with debt?”(Qur’an;68:46). “and you shall have a never ending reward.”(Qur’an;63:3).
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Kinsfolk :
The kinsfolk of Apostle, who accepted the faith of Islam and members of his household (Ahl-al-Bait) are highly revered by the Muslims. They have earned this respect not only due to their close relationship with the Apostle (peace be upon him), but due to exemplary piety (taqwa) and strict adherence to the teachings of Qur’an and Sunnah of Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet ensured to pass the divine instructions to them in clear words : “So do not call on other gods besides Allah, lest you become one of those who incur His punishment. (O Muhammad) warn your nearest kinsmen,”( Qur’an;26:214). Narrated Abu Huraira: When Allah revealed the verse: "Warn your nearest kinsmen,"(26:214). Allah's Apostle got up and said, "O people of Quraish (or said similar words)! Buy (i.e. save) yourselves (from the Hellfire) as I cannot save you from Allah's punishment; O Bani Abd Manaf! I cannot save you from Allah's punishment, O Safiya, the Aunt of Allah's Apostle! I cannot save you from Allah's punishment; O Fatima bint Muhammad! Ask me anything from my wealth, but I cannot save you from Allah's punishment."(Sahih Bukhari Volume.4 Hadith 16 & 728). Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah: A woman from the tribe of Makhzum committed theft. She was brought to Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) and she sought refuge (intercession) from Umm Salamah, the wife of Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him). Thereupon Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: By Allah, even if she were Fatima (daughter of Muhammad), I would have her hand cut off. And thus her hand was cut off.(Sahih Muslim Hadith.786, also similar at Bukhari.4.681 & 5.79). Abu Talib, the guardian and dearest uncle of Prophet declined to accept Islam even at death bed. Then Allah's Apostle said, "I will keep on asking Allah's forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden (by Allah) to do so." So Allah revealed (the verse) concerning him i.e. “It is not proper for the Prophet and those who believe that they should beg forgiveness for the idolaters, even though they be their relatives, after it has been explained to them that they are the inmates of hellfire.”Qur’an;9:113. (Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith, Volume 2 Hadith, 442).
The wives of Prophet had special status, Allah says: “O wives of the Prophet! You are not like the other women...”(32:33). But even they are not exempted from His laws of justice, rather their punishment and reward is doubled: “O Consorts of the Prophet! if any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct the Punishment would be doubled to her and that is easy for Allah. But any of you that is devout in the service of Allah and His Apostle and works righteousness to her shall We grant her reward twice: and We have prepared for her a generous Sustenance.”(Qur’an;33:30-31). Abu Lahab, "Father of Flame", was one of the most inveterate enemies of early Islam. Allah revealed a Surah (chapter.111, Al-Lahab) abut him of his doom. It is narrated by Anas ibn Malik: Verily a person said: Messenger of Allah, where is my father? He said: (He) is in the Fire. When he turned away, he (the Prophet) called him and said: Verily my father and your father are in the Fire.(Sahih Muslim Hadith.89). The aim of these examples is not to cause aspersions, but to highlight that the relationship with the Apostle (peace be upon him), does not help, unless they follow him.
The Muslims highly respect the family of the Prophet, his wives have been granted special status by Allah. They were not like ordinary women, Allah says: “The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are as their mothers..”(Qur’an;33:6). They as mothers of believer (Umuhatul Momineen) had a special position and special responsibilities, in the matter of guiding and instructing women who came into the fold of Islam. After Khadijah al-Kubra and
Fatima az-Zahra, Aish’a as-Siddiqah is regarded as the best woman in Islam and in the family of Prophet. Because of the strength of her personality, she was a leader in every field in knowledge, in society, in politics and in war. She often regretted her involvement in war but lived long enough to regain position as the most respected woman of her time, a large number of Hadiths are attributed to her. Prophet loved his daughter Fatima, who was extremely pious: Narrated Al Miswar bin Makhrama: Allah's Apostle said, " Fatima is a part of me, and whoever makes her angry, makes me angry." (Sahih Bukhari Hadith.5.111 & 5.61). Ali bin Talib, was his cousin and son in law, more over he was the first among the children to accept Islam. Prophet had very intimate relationship with Ali, whose father Abu Talib, took care of orphan Muhammad since childhood. Similarly Prophet took care of Ali after death of Abu Talib. Ali was brave and highly learned, his sayings are a great treasure of wisdom, he was martyred as 4th Rightly Guided Caliph. In the words of Shah Wali Ullah, the great Muslims scholar and reformer: “Chivalry and strength of character, humanity and sincerity which are attributes of great men were represented in abundance by Ali. He is the father of Islamic learning, and his intellectual attainments were due to the ideal training of The Holy Prophet. He was a Hafiz, and a great authority on the Qur’an. He was the greatest Mujahid and jurist of his time, and one of the greatest of all times. He was one of the greatest orators of early Islam.” Prophet loved his grandsons Hassan and Husain, who were highly pious and learned. Imam Hussein laid down his life for the just cause of Islam. All the members of Household of Prophet, were virtuous human being, they greatly contributed towards the cause of Islam. However in the esteem of love for them, care must be exercised to remain with in the limits set by Allah and His Messenger: “My Lord neither makes a mistake nor does He forget.”(Qur’an;).
The criteria for exaltation has been laid down by Allah : “O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you might get to know one another. Surely the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous Allah is All-Knowledgeable, All-Aware.”(Qur’an;49:13). Prophet (peace be upon him) in his last address to the Muslims at Hajj said: “You know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. You are all equal. Nobody has superiority over other except by piety and good action.” He further said: “O’ People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.”
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